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FROM TIME to time, I have an image of a lovely Judy Garland hanging off a San Francisco cable car as she sings “The Trolley Song.” Ah, but the mind plays subtle tricks.
Though her wonderful CD Judy at Carnegie Hall includes both “San Francisco” and “The Trolley Song,” the latter had nothing to do with the former (other than muddling my mental images).
On the album’s song “San Francisco” Judy improvises a line “hanging off a cable car.” And, later, she sings “The Trolley Song,” which actually comes from her 1944 movie Meet Me in St. Louis.
The movie and song celebrate the 1904 St. Louis World’s Fair, that city’s electrification and its first electric trolley.
One day I’ll study up on the transition of trolley cars from horse-drawn to electrically driven. Here I offer details of the San Francisco cable car, documented in the April 1962 issue of Road & Track magazine and viewable at the Cable Car Guy’s entertaining website, http://goo.gl/jVQWoH.
The first of San Francisco’s cable car lines was designed and built in 1873 by a Scot named Andred Hallidie, who recognized the challenge of transportation up and down the city’s steep hills.
Hallidie’s response was to propel the street cars not by individual motors, but rather by a single electrically driven cable running at constant speed beneath the streets.
The combination car barn, workshop, museum and power house is located at Mason and Washington Streets. The cables (there are four separate ones) travel from 10-ft. sheaves through complex arrays of pulleys that take them up and down hills and around corners—all at a constant 9.5 mph.
In motion, the cable car is connected to its cable by a grip fitted through a slot running in the center of its tracks.
The cable car grip, designed by Hallidie, is actuated by a long lever that closes a clamping yoke lined with replaceable steel dies. Once gripped, there is no slippage. And because of the importance of this device, a cable car operator is known as a gripman. (The first female grip operator, Fannie Mae Barnes, earned her position on January 15, 1998.)
There are three separate brake systems, plus a failsafe. The gripman operates a hand brake through a second lever which forces pine blocks directly onto the rails. He also has a pedal that actuates steel brake shoes against the front wheels. The cable car conductor has a hand crank actuating similar railway brakes on the rear wheels.
The failsafe is a red lever on the gripman’s left. It forces a steel wedge down into the cable slot and likely requires a torch to undo its retardation.
R&T identifies the San Francisco cable car as “the ultimate town car, with instant acceleration, fantastic wear index, all-weather traction, phenomenal passenger capacity, and an unmatched degree of customer loyalty.”
An automaker should be so lucky. ds
© Dennis Simanaitis, SimanaitisSays.com, 2014